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GARDINER Barry

  • Institut Européen de la Forêt Cultivée, Institut Européen de la Forêt Cultivée, Cestas, France
  • Forest ecosystem services and forest conservation, Functional forest ecology , Silviculture and forest management, Wood properties and wood products
  • recommender

Recommendations:  0

Review:  1

Educational and work
Work Experience August 2020-Present Senior Researcher Development of risk models for European forestry, calculation of forestry carbon sequestration, promotion and dissemination of information, techniques and tools to researchers, policy makers and forest managers IEFC, Pierroton, France Forestry research March 2016-December 2019 Senior Researcher Development of risk models for European forestry and promotion and dissemination of damage mitigation techniques and tools to researchers, policy makers and forest managers EFI PFF, Pierroton, France Forestry research 1 December 2015-1 December 2017 Senior Scientist (Chargé de Mission Retraité) Honorary position to continue work of INRA scientific package (see below) to incorporate simplified parameterization of the effects of landscape heterogeneity, damage propagation and detailed root models in in forest wind risk models, and to disseminate the results within the forestry sector (forest owners, managers, public authorities). INRA, Villenave D’Ornon, France Agronomy research 1 January 2012-Present Research Fellow Honorary position to continue collaborative work at Forest Research on wind damage to forests and wood properties of conifers. Forest Research, Forest Management Division, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research December 2011-November 2015 Senior scientist Team leader on a 4 year project developing methods for predicting and mitigating wind damage to forests at a regional scale. INRA, Villenave D’Ornon, France Agronomy research 2009-November 2011 Group Leader for Programme on Physical Properties of Stands, Trees and Timber To undertake and co-ordinate basic and applied research on the influence of forest management and environment on the physical properties of forest stands, trees and timber and to disseminate this knowledge to the forest and wood processing industries Forest Research, Centre for Forest Resources and Management, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research April 2008-July 2008 Visiting Scientist at INRA, Bordeaux (sabbatical visit from Forest Research) To complete and write up work on forest stability and timber quality. In addition to further develop links with INRA, Pierroton in the area of adaptive forest management and with INRA, Bordeaux in the area of airflow in forests and stand stability. At INRA, Pierroton worked with Jean-Michel Carnus and Christophe Orazio and at INRA, Bordeaux with Yves Brunet and Sylvain Dupont. Forest Research, Forest Management Division, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research 1999-2009 Programme Leader, Timber Properties Programme and Deputy Head of Forest Management Division To undertake and co-ordinate basic and applied research on the influence of silviculture on timber quality and tree stability and to diseminate this knowledge to the forest/wood processing industry Forest Research, Forest Management Division, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research 1993-1999 Principal Scientific Officer To undertake and co-ordinate basic research investigating forest-atmosphere interactions and the influence of topography on airflow Forestry Authority, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, UK Forestry research 1987-1993 Senior Scientific Officer, To undertake and co-ordinate basic research investigating forest-atmosphere interactions and the influence of topography on airflow Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, UK Forestry research 1985-1987 Director Precipitation Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences Center To undertake fundamental research into atmospheric processes associated with clouds and precipitation and to manage the budget and science of the laboratory Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada. Atmospheric science research 1983-1985 Assistant Research Professor, Atmospheric Sciences Center To undertake fundamental research into the role of ice in thunderstorms and hurricanes Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada. Atmospheric science research 1979-1983 Research Associate. To undertake fundamental research into cloud physics and precipitation Department of Pure and Applied Physics, UMIST, Manchester, UK Atmospheric science research 1976-1979 Contract Meteorologist/Physicist To make synoptic meteorological measurements and measurements of ozone and solar radiation as part of a team of meteorologists and physicists in Antarctica. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK. Antarctic science research Education 1973-1976 BSc Physics Durham University 1st 1979-1983 PhD Physics of Clouds and Fogs University of Manchester

Review:  1

12 Jul 2021
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Tree growth forces and wood properties

Into the wood: the biomechanical history of trees revealed by their inner structure

Recommended by based on reviews by Barry Gardiner and 1 anonymous reviewer

Trees are constantly subjected to mechanical stresses (gravity, wind, storms) but they have a remarkable ability to remain upright despite their great size. Straightness is also major characteristic that greatly determines the quality and market value of a log. For some species, maritime pine in particular, this is even a default that geneticists are trying to correct through dedicated breeding programs (Bartholomé et al. 2016). If trees are able to maintain a straight trunk, or to return to straightness after a growth accident, for example, it is thanks to an "engine" whose mechanisms are now better known (Moulia et al. 2021). This mechanism lies in the structure of the trunk itself and the ability of trees to produce cells and tissues that display different mechanical properties during their maturation. Some fibers will "pull" the trunk in one direction, known as tension wood, while others will « push » it in the opposite direction (compression wood). The posture control of a tree is therefore directly related to the growth process of the trees and the placement of this reaction wood at specific points in the trunk. The internal structure of the trunk will therefore retain the memory of these growth constraints throughout its life and, if we are able to read it, we can envisage reconstructing its history over the years. This source of information contained in tree rings is still largely unexplored. However, it can reveal insights into the evolution of the climate, or help foresters to select the most valuable trees. Sophisticated approaches exist to measure these growth forces in wood, but the major difficulty remains our ability to read the mechanical properties with simpler, more widely used methods. The article by Thibaut and Gril (2021) proposes such a methodology.

The approach used here is similar to the one used for other wood functions, such as sap transport: linking the mechanical function of wood to its structural properties. The transport capacity of wood is for example well explained by the distribution of vessel sizes. However, other interesting properties, such as resistance to cavitation, are only very weakly explained by the same anatomical characteristics. The authors, after analyzing the wood properties of many species, both tropical and temperate, conclude that growth forces can be deduced from variables that are relatively simple to measure, such as wood density or moduli of elasticity.  The article provides a series of generic and more specific equations and relationships that allow these growth forces to be estimated. 

I recommend this article to people who want to learn about the principles and concepts of tree biomechanics. I also recommend it to people who want to further explore the mechanical properties of trees and who will be able to characterize them thanks to the method proposed here by the authors.  

References

Bartholomé J, Bink MC, Heerwaarden J van, Chancerel E, Boury C, Lesur I, Isik F, Bouffier L, Plomion C (2016) Linkage and Association Mapping for Two Major Traits Used in the Maritime Pine Breeding Program: Height Growth and Stem Straightness. PLOS ONE, 11, e0165323. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165323

Thibaut B, Gril J (2021) Tree growth forces and wood properties. HAL, hal-02984734, ver. 4 peer-reviewed and recommended by Peer community in Forest and Wood Sciences. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02984734

Moulia B, Douady S, Hamant O (2021) Fluctuations shape plants through proprioception. Science, 372. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6868

avatar

GARDINER Barry

  • Institut Européen de la Forêt Cultivée, Institut Européen de la Forêt Cultivée, Cestas, France
  • Forest ecosystem services and forest conservation, Functional forest ecology , Silviculture and forest management, Wood properties and wood products
  • recommender

Recommendations:  0

Review:  1

Educational and work
Work Experience August 2020-Present Senior Researcher Development of risk models for European forestry, calculation of forestry carbon sequestration, promotion and dissemination of information, techniques and tools to researchers, policy makers and forest managers IEFC, Pierroton, France Forestry research March 2016-December 2019 Senior Researcher Development of risk models for European forestry and promotion and dissemination of damage mitigation techniques and tools to researchers, policy makers and forest managers EFI PFF, Pierroton, France Forestry research 1 December 2015-1 December 2017 Senior Scientist (Chargé de Mission Retraité) Honorary position to continue work of INRA scientific package (see below) to incorporate simplified parameterization of the effects of landscape heterogeneity, damage propagation and detailed root models in in forest wind risk models, and to disseminate the results within the forestry sector (forest owners, managers, public authorities). INRA, Villenave D’Ornon, France Agronomy research 1 January 2012-Present Research Fellow Honorary position to continue collaborative work at Forest Research on wind damage to forests and wood properties of conifers. Forest Research, Forest Management Division, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research December 2011-November 2015 Senior scientist Team leader on a 4 year project developing methods for predicting and mitigating wind damage to forests at a regional scale. INRA, Villenave D’Ornon, France Agronomy research 2009-November 2011 Group Leader for Programme on Physical Properties of Stands, Trees and Timber To undertake and co-ordinate basic and applied research on the influence of forest management and environment on the physical properties of forest stands, trees and timber and to disseminate this knowledge to the forest and wood processing industries Forest Research, Centre for Forest Resources and Management, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research April 2008-July 2008 Visiting Scientist at INRA, Bordeaux (sabbatical visit from Forest Research) To complete and write up work on forest stability and timber quality. In addition to further develop links with INRA, Pierroton in the area of adaptive forest management and with INRA, Bordeaux in the area of airflow in forests and stand stability. At INRA, Pierroton worked with Jean-Michel Carnus and Christophe Orazio and at INRA, Bordeaux with Yves Brunet and Sylvain Dupont. Forest Research, Forest Management Division, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research 1999-2009 Programme Leader, Timber Properties Programme and Deputy Head of Forest Management Division To undertake and co-ordinate basic and applied research on the influence of silviculture on timber quality and tree stability and to diseminate this knowledge to the forest/wood processing industry Forest Research, Forest Management Division, Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, UK. Forestry research 1993-1999 Principal Scientific Officer To undertake and co-ordinate basic research investigating forest-atmosphere interactions and the influence of topography on airflow Forestry Authority, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, UK Forestry research 1987-1993 Senior Scientific Officer, To undertake and co-ordinate basic research investigating forest-atmosphere interactions and the influence of topography on airflow Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian, UK Forestry research 1985-1987 Director Precipitation Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences Center To undertake fundamental research into atmospheric processes associated with clouds and precipitation and to manage the budget and science of the laboratory Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada. Atmospheric science research 1983-1985 Assistant Research Professor, Atmospheric Sciences Center To undertake fundamental research into the role of ice in thunderstorms and hurricanes Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada. Atmospheric science research 1979-1983 Research Associate. To undertake fundamental research into cloud physics and precipitation Department of Pure and Applied Physics, UMIST, Manchester, UK Atmospheric science research 1976-1979 Contract Meteorologist/Physicist To make synoptic meteorological measurements and measurements of ozone and solar radiation as part of a team of meteorologists and physicists in Antarctica. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK. Antarctic science research Education 1973-1976 BSc Physics Durham University 1st 1979-1983 PhD Physics of Clouds and Fogs University of Manchester