FOURNIER Meriem's profile
avatar

FOURNIER Meriem

  • UMR SILVA, Université de Lorraine, INRAE, Nancy, France
  • Biology of wood in living trees , Forest based bioeconomy , Functional forest ecology , Wood properties and wood products
  • recommender

Recommendations:  0

Review:  1

Educational and work
Doctoral degree in 1989 , Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine », Title of the thesis « Mechanics of standing trees » Habilitation à diriger des recherches (Degree that allows to supervise doctoral thesis and research programs) in 1994, University of Bordeaux. Title of the report « Plant biomechanics » Researcher (civil servant) in AgroParisTech then INRAE since 1989 Research in Wood and tree biomechanics : Bordeaux 1989-1994 Tree biomechanics, tropical wood properties : Montpellier 1994-1998 Tree biomechanics, tropical forest ecology : Kourou (French Guiana) : 1998-2006 Tree biomechanics, forest ecology and management, wood traits : Nancy 2006- Forest bioeconomy in territories, interdisciplinary research on forest organizations and systems in the context of global change : Nancy 2015- www.researchgate.net/profile/Meriem_Fournier/research Member of the IAWS (International Academy of Wood Science) since 2014. Prix Jean Dufrenoy 2014 of “Académie d’Agriculture de France” (first prize, given each year to one researcher in agricultural sciences, for the originality and impact of his research) Member of “Académie d’Agriculture de France” since 2017.

Review:  1

08 Jul 2022
article picture

Mechanical characterisation of the developing cell wall layers of tension wood fibres by Atomic Force Microscopy

“Touching the Void”

Recommended by based on reviews by Meriem Fournier and Félix Hartmann

Understanding the processes allowing trees to orientate their stems and branches requires an understanding of the mechanical properties of individual cells. As the cells are formed, maturation stresses are created that can lead to the reorientation of the tree. But measuring the properties within the different wood cells produced in normal wood, tension wood or compression wood requires measurements at very fine spatial resolution and the wood cells must remain in-situ so that the cell mechanical characteristics are preserved. In the article of Arnould et al (2022), measurements of the mechanical characteristics of poplar tension wood were measured in comparison to normal wood at different distances from the cambium and therefore different levels of maturation. The work required incredible care to embed the wood in resin, to cut the wood with extremely sharp microtone blades in order to minimize artefacts in the measurements, and then ultra-careful atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements across cell walls from the edge of the lumen to the middle lamella at extremely high spatial resolution. The result is a detailed picture of the kinetic development and maturation of tension wood cells in a tree. The measurements showed that the G-layer reaches close to its final stiffness long before its final thickness, and this is different from the maturation kinetics of other cell wall layers where thickening and stiffening are generally synchronous. Finally, although the G-layer in poplar tension wood fibres and in flax phloem fibres are in many ways very similar there are clear differences in the kinetics of their development and maturation. The detailed information presented in this paper can therefore help to clarify the different hypothetical mechanisms proposed to explain excess stress generation in the tension wood of trees and help move us towards a full understanding of how the “muscles” of trees work.

References

Arnould O, Capron M, Ramonda M, Laurans F, Alméras T, Pilate G, Clair B (2022) Mechanical characterisation of the developing cell wall layers of tension wood fibres by Atomic Force Microscopy. bioRxiv, 2021.09.23.461481, ver. 4 peer-reviewed and recommended by Peer Community in Forest and Wood Science. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.23.461481

avatar

FOURNIER Meriem

  • UMR SILVA, Université de Lorraine, INRAE, Nancy, France
  • Biology of wood in living trees , Forest based bioeconomy , Functional forest ecology , Wood properties and wood products
  • recommender

Recommendations:  0

Review:  1

Educational and work
Doctoral degree in 1989 , Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine », Title of the thesis « Mechanics of standing trees » Habilitation à diriger des recherches (Degree that allows to supervise doctoral thesis and research programs) in 1994, University of Bordeaux. Title of the report « Plant biomechanics » Researcher (civil servant) in AgroParisTech then INRAE since 1989 Research in Wood and tree biomechanics : Bordeaux 1989-1994 Tree biomechanics, tropical wood properties : Montpellier 1994-1998 Tree biomechanics, tropical forest ecology : Kourou (French Guiana) : 1998-2006 Tree biomechanics, forest ecology and management, wood traits : Nancy 2006- Forest bioeconomy in territories, interdisciplinary research on forest organizations and systems in the context of global change : Nancy 2015- www.researchgate.net/profile/Meriem_Fournier/research Member of the IAWS (International Academy of Wood Science) since 2014. Prix Jean Dufrenoy 2014 of “Académie d’Agriculture de France” (first prize, given each year to one researcher in agricultural sciences, for the originality and impact of his research) Member of “Académie d’Agriculture de France” since 2017.